Setting Up your Development Environment for Building a Genetic Adversarial Network Image Setting Up your Development Environment for Building a Genetic Adversarial Network

What’s a development environment? Everyone thinks setting up a development environment needs to be this incredibly arduous process. The installation process could be worse. It’s actually quite simple and this article intends to show you the basics.

Getting ready

Let’s lay out the requirements for the equipment you’ll need:

  • GPU: 10 series CUDA-enabled Nidea GPU
  • Operating system: Ubuntu Linux 16.04+
  • CPU/RAM: i5 or i7 with at least 8 GB of RAM

First and foremost, the GPU is a requirement. Although these algorithms can technically train on a CPU, it could take days in some cases for a single model to converge. It can take a GPU a day or more to converge in some instances. GPUs offer an immense computational power increase over CPUs and are hence a necessity. It’s easy today to find a laptop with a 1,060 or better in it for around \$900.

Ubuntu is the typical operating system for this type of development. This article will assume Ubuntu and Bash as the default interaction with the operating system.

How to do it…

There are a few common steps that will need to be for each new developer—these steps will be addressed in the following subsections.

Installing the NVIDIA driver for your GPU

Installing the correct NVIDIA driver is incredibly important. A key component  is the usage of CUDA in TensorFlow. NVIDIA has this description for the CUDA library:

“CUDA® is a parallel computing platform and programming model developed by NVIDIA for general computing on graphical processing units (GPUs). With CUDA, developers are able to dramatically speed up computing applications by harnessing the power of GPUs.” (Source: https://developer.nvidia.com/cuda-zone).

Using CUDA, TensorFlow can achieve drastic speedups in terms of processing power. In order to make this happen, we need to have a certain type of GPU and driver installed on the host machine.

So, let’s start installing the things that we require.

In this section, a recommended driver will be specified and a few options for installation will be proposed. It’s hard to ensure that the installation will be the same for each developer because the installation can vary for each machine it’s installed on. Instead, we’ll show some methods on how to get it done but will rely on you to figure out the nitty-gritties for their application.

You can run the nvidia-smi command to know which version of driver is installed on your system.

The following is an example of the nvidia-smi command:

nvidia-smi-command

The output of nvidia-smi will show your GPU any processes you have running and the current driver version installed.

Installing Nvidia-Docker

The following is an Nvidia-Docker hierarchy that you need to understand before installing it:

nvidia-docker

What is Docker? According to the Docker website, the keyword for it is lightweight. Docker containers running on a single machine share that machine’s operating system kernel; they start instantly and use less compute and RAM. Images are constructed from filesystem layers and share common files (source: https://www.docker.com/what-container).

Essentially, Docker allows us to create a lightweight Virtual Machine (VM) in a container where we can house all of our applications and guarantee that the environment is going to be the same every time we enter this container.

NVIDIA-Docker goes one step further and provides the appropriate linkage for our Docker containers to be able to interact with a GPU. This is a critical piece for our development environment. Once we have NVIDIA-Docker set up, the rest of the environment is fairly straightforward to integrate.

The installation is easy. It’s recommended that you visit the website and ensure that the directions haven’t changed since publication: https://github.com/NVIDIA/nvidia-docker. At this time, NVIDIA-Docker2 is the latest version of development. When you install the NVIDIA-Docker2 system with these steps, it should allow you to upgrade periodically with  sudo apt upgrade.

When going to the website, you should see a set of instructions similar to this one:

Ubuntu 14.04/16.04/18.04, Debian Jessie/Stretch
# If you have nvidia-docker 1.0 installed: we need to remove it and all existing GPU containers
docker volume ls -q -f driver=nvidia-docker | xargs -r -I{} -n1 docker ps -q -a -f volume={} | xargs -r docker rm -f
sudo apt-get purge -y nvidia-docker

# Add the package repositories
curl -s -L https://nvidia.github.io/nvidia-docker/gpgkey | \
  sudo apt-key add -
distribution=$(. /etc/os-release;echo$ID$VERSION_ID)
curl -s -L https://nvidia.github.io/nvidia-docker/$distribution/nvidia-docker.list | \
  sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/nvidia-docker.list
sudo apt-get update

# Install nvidia-docker2 and reload the Docker daemon configuration
sudo apt-get install -y nvidia-docker2
sudo pkill -SIGHUP dockerd

# Test nvidia-smi with the latest official CUDA image
docker run --runtime=nvidia --rm nvidia/cuda nvidia-smi

Note - The instructions source is found at: https://github.com/NVIDIA/nvidia-docker.

Now, let’s go over each of these commands in detail.

Purging all older versions of Docker 

First things first—you have to wipe out all the old versions of Docker prior to this installation. The folks maintaining this repository conveniently provided a few commands. The first command removes all old versions of Docker:

$ docker volume ls -q -f driver=nvidia-docker | xargs -r -I{} -n1 docker ps -q -a -f volume={} | xargs -r docker rm -f

After completing this command, the next step is to use the purge method in apt-get to remove any previous installations of NVIDIA-Docker from your previous work:

$ sudo apt-get purge -y nvidia-docker

Here, we’ve completed our step 1 installation!

Adding package repositories

Now that you’ve removed all of the older versions of NVIDIA-Docker, it’s time to add the keys and repository to the typical apt-get repositories that you can pull from. First, in the Installing NVIDIA-Docker recipe, you need to add the appropriate key for apt-get to communicate with the NVIDIA-Docker repository:

$ curl -s -L https://nvidia.github.io/nvidia-docker/gpgkey | \
  sudo apt-key add -
distribution=$(. /etc/os-release;echo $ID$VERSION_ID)

After adding the key, add the repo to the sources that apt-get can pull from when installing packages:

$ curl -s -L https://nvidia.github.io/nvidia-docker/$distribution/nvidia-docker.list | \
  sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/nvidia-docker.list

Finally, an apt-get update allows apt-get to update its list of installable packages. Since we just added a new repository, the update will allow us to install the NVIDIA-Docker repository in the next step:

sudo apt-get update

Now we move on to the next step.

Installing NVIDIA-Docker2 and reloading the daemon

This is the point you’ve been waiting for! (Probably not.) Use apt-get to install the nvidia-docker2 package:

sudo apt-get install -y nvidia-docker2

Next, use pkill to restart the Docker daemon after the installation:

$ sudo pkill -SIGHUP dockerd

Now, you’re ready for a simple test of the installation.

Testing nvidia-smi through the Docker container

This is the moment of truth—if this command runs correctly, you should see the nvidia-smi output that you see on your machine outside of the container: docker run –runtime=nvidia –rm nvidia/cuda nvidia-smi Your output should look similar to the nvidia-smi command example we showed in the Installing NVIDIA driver for your GPU section:

Now you’re ready to move onto actually building a development environment.

Building a container for development

What’s a container? A container is Docker’s name for a VM with a certain configuration of operating system and software. Docker containers allow you the flexibility to have a different development environment for every new project with minimal downtime.

This section will simply explain a small example Dockerfile to give you an idea of how powerful these particular tools are. Here’s the example we are going to cover:

FROM nvidia/cuda:9.0-cudnn7-devel-ubuntu16.04
ARG KERAS=2.2.0
ARG TENSORFLOW=1.8.0

# Update the repositories within the container

RUN apt-get update

# Install Python 2 and 3 + our basic dev tools

RUN apt-get install -y \
          python-dev \
          python3-dev \
          curl \
          git \
          vim

# Install pip

RUN curl -O https://bootstrap.pypa.io/get-pip.py && \
         python get-pip.py && \
         rm get-pip.py

# Install Tensorflow and Keras

RUN pip --no-cache-dir install \
         tensorflow_gpu==${TENSORFLOW} \
         keras==${KERAS}

This is the basics of how you will build a basic image, called base_image.

Note - Here are a few topics to cover in case you are curious about how the RUN commands work in Dockerfiles: https://docs.docker.com/engine/reference/run/.

Conclusion

If you enjoyed reading this article and are curious about building GANs, you can explore Generative Adversarial Networks Cookbook. With over 100 recipes to build generative models using Python, TensorFlow, and Keras, Generative Adversarial Networks Cookbook is a must-read for data scientists, machine learning developers, and deep learning practitioners looking for a quick reference to tackle challenges and tasks in the GAN domain.